河南省对口升学英语语法专题复习十一、动词之非谓语动词

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动词之非谓语动词

复习要点提纲:

一、非谓语动词分类

1、不定式

2、ing形式

3、过去分词

二、非谓语动词的用法

1、动词不定式的结构和不定式所做的成分

1)掌握不定式作宾语、宾补、主语、表语,了解做定语、状语的用法

2)熟记常用动词不定式作宾语的动词,如decide, fail, refuse, manage, choose, hope, agree, plan, intend, pretend, promise, offer, afford, demand等

3)掌握不定式在某些动词后作宾补时省去to的用法。

在主动结构中,“四看”(see, watch, notice, observe)、“三使”(make, let, have)、“两听”(hear, listen to)、“一感觉”(feel)后+宾语+不带to的不定式。但是这些省去的to在变成被动语态后需加上to。

2、ing形式所做的成分

1)掌握ing形式做宾语的用法;理解做主语、表语的用法;了解做定语、状语、宾补的用法。

2)熟记一些常用动词的ing形式作宾语的动词,如enjoy, finish, practice, mind, keep, miss, avoid, suggest, admit, imagine, can’t help, give up等

3、了解过去分词在句中作表语、宾补、定语和状语

复习内容:

非谓语动词

掌握非谓语动词(the Non-Finite Verbs)的概念:在句子中充当除谓语以外的各种句子成分的动词形式。非谓语动词也是动词的一种,他们有着动词的其他特点,可以充当主语、宾语、状语、宾语补足语等,有 to do, doing, done三种形式。

a.动词不定式(to do)

  • 掌握动词不定式的肯定式和否定式的构成形式;
  • 掌握不定式作宾语、宾补、主语、表语的用法。如:

He decided to give up smoking. 他决定戒烟。(作宾语)

He told me to wait for him here. 他告诉我在这里等他。(作宾补)

It is interesting to learn English. 学习英语很有趣。(不定式作主语时,常用it作形式主语,把不定式放后面)

Her job is to help you with your English. 她的工作是帮你学英语。(作表语)

  • 了解不定式作定语、状语的用法。如:

I have a lot of work to do today. 今天我有很多工作要做。(作定语)

We have to hurry up to arrive there on time. 为了准时到达那里,我们不得不赶快。(作目的状语)

  • 熟记一些常用动词不定式作宾语的动词,如decide, fail, refuse, manage, choose, hope, agree, plan, intend, pretend, promise, offer, afford, demand等。如:

I decided to go home on this weekend. 我决定这个周末回家。

He refused to give up his plan. 他拒绝放弃他的计划。

  • 掌握动词不定式在某些动词后作宾补时省去to的用法。

在主动结构中,“四看”(see, watch, notice, observe)、“三使”(make, let, have)、“两听”(hear, listen to)、“一感觉”(feel)后+宾语+不带to的不定式。但是这些省去的to在变成被动语态后需加上to。如:

I observed the woman follow the boy closely all the time. 我注意到那女子一直紧跟着那个小男孩儿。

The woman was observed to follow the boy closely all the time. 那个女子被注意到一直紧跟着那个小男孩儿。

The boss made him work all day. 老板使他整天劳动。

He was made to work all day. 他被迫整天劳动。

b.动词的ing形式

  • 掌握动词的ing形式在句中作宾语的用法;理解动词ing形式做主语、表语的用法;如:Learning English is very interesting. 学习英语很有趣。(作主语)

My job is teaching you English. 我的工作是教你们英语。(作表语)

  • 了解动词的ing形式在句中作定语、状语和宾补的用法;如:

Please don’t wake up the sleeping baby. 请不要惊醒正在熟睡的小孩。(作定语,表示正在睡觉)

“This is my brother”. Susan said, pointing to the photo. 指着照片,苏珊说“这是我哥哥”。(作伴随状语)

I find the students reading English words. 我发现学生们正在读英语单词。(作宾补)

  • 熟记一些常用动词的ing形式作宾语的动词,如enjoy, finish, practice, mind, keep, miss, avoid,suggest, admit, imagine, can’t help, give up等。如:

I enjoy listening to music. 我喜欢听音乐。

Would you mind opening the door for me? 你介意给我开门吗?

c.过去分词(done)

  • 掌握过去分词的构成形式;
  • 了解过去分词在句中作表语、宾补、定语和状语的用法;如:

The cup is broken. 茶杯破了。(作表语,表示主语的状态,不但表示被动)

He is retired. 他已退休。(作表语,表示主语的状态,强调已完成了)

I find the door closed now. 我发现门现在关上了。((作宾补,说明门的关的状态)

They have sent the injured man to hospital. 他们把受伤的男人送到了医院。(作定语,表示被动)

When asked to answer the question, Tom didn’t know the answer. 当被要求回答这个问题时,汤姆不知道答案。(作状语,表被动)

  • 了解动词的ing形式和动词的ed形式的区别。动词的ing形式和过去分词的主要区别在于:动词的ing形式表示主动和进行,表示“……令人……”;而过去分词done表示被动和完成,表示“某人感到……”。如:

The movie is very moving. 这部电影很感人。

I was moved by the movie. 我被这部电影感动了。

动词不定式/动词ing形式/过去分词专项

(    )176.I saw him _____ a car.

A.repaired B.repairing C.to repair D.repairs

(    )177.—Do you always get up so early?

—Yes, ______ the first subway. My home is far away from school.

A.catching B.to catch C.caught D.catch

(    )178.The problem ______ next week is very serious.

A.being discussed    B.discussed C.to be discussed  D.will be discussed

(    )179.In order to keep the earth clean,we should do everything we can ______waste things.

A.recycle B.to recycle  C.recycling D.recycled

(    )180.______ ill, he was late for class.

A.Be  B.To be C.He was D.Being

(    )181._____ is a good way to lose weight.

A.Swim B.Swimming C.To swimming D.Be swimming

(    )182.The next morning she found the man ______ in bed had been dead.

A.lying B.lie C.lay D.laying

(    )183.The girl came into the room,________.

A.sing and laugh                   B.sang and laughed

C.singing and laughing  D.sings and laughs

(    )184.The teacher went into the classroom,_____by a few of his students.

A.follow B.following C.followed  D.to follow

(    )185.Dick made the good news _____ to all his friends.

A.know B.known C.to know D.knowing

注:需要专项练习答案与考点解析的朋友请微信联系张老师。

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