【对口升学英语二轮专题复习系列一、语法部分】主谓一致

zstarstar发布

语法复习二十、主谓一致

学习目标

掌握主谓一致的用法

学习难点

A number of +复数名词与The number of +复数名词作主语区别;在there be结构和倒装句中,谓语通常全部或部分放在主语前面,谓语的单复数依后面的主语而定

学习内容

掌握主谓一致的用法

“主谓一致”是指谓语动词与主语必须在单复数上保持一致,即主语是复数,如we, they, you, people等,谓语也用复数形式,如are, were, have等;主语是单数,如I, he, she, it, Mary等,谓语要用单数形式,如am, is, was, has, works等。

在具体处理一致关系时可遵循以下三原则:意义一致、就近一致、就远一致。

① 意义一致的原则

  1. 谓语动词为单数的情况。如:

1)由and 连接的并列成分指的是同一概念或同一个东西。如:

The worker and writer is from Wuhan. 那个工人兼作家(一个人)来自武汉。

(比较:The worker and the writer are from Beijing. 那位工人和那位作家(两个人)都来自武汉。

Bread and butter is a daily food in the West. 奶油面包在西方国家是每天的食物。

2)Every … and (every)…, each …and (each… , no …and (no)… , many a …and (many a)…连接两个单数名词作主语。如:

Every desk and every chair is made of wood. 每个桌子和椅子都是木头做成的。

Many a boy and girl has made the same mistake. 很多男孩和女孩都犯同样的错误。

3)one/every one /each/either/ neither/the number+of+复数名词作主语。如:

Each of the students has a book. 每个学生都有一本书。

Neither of the students has a book. 这两个学生都没有书。

4)clothing, furniture, traffic, jewellery, equipment, luggage等无生命的集合名词作主语。如:

Clothing is badly needed in this flooded area. 在这洪水泛滥地区,衣服很紧缺。

5)以-s 结尾的词,但表示学科、国家、机构、书籍、报刊等名称作主语。如:

Maths is one of my favourite subjects. 数学是我最喜欢的科目之一。

6)表示时间、距离、金钱等复数名词作主语,表达一个整体概念时。如:

Twenty years has passed since he left his hometown. 自从他离开家乡,已经过去20年了。

Ten thousand dollars is quite a large sum. 一万美元是一大笔钱。

Fifteen miles seems like a long walk to me. 对我来说,15英里似乎是漫长的步行。

7)由every-,any-,some-,no-和-one,-thing,-body等所构成的不定代词作主语。如:

Is everyone here today? 大家都在这里了吗?

Is anything wrong here? 这里出错了吗?

  1. 谓语动词为复数的情况

1)由and连接的两个并列成分表示两个不同的概念。如:

Both bread and butter are sold out. 面包和黄油都买完了。

Fire and water have no mercy. 水火无情。

Time and tide wait for no man. 时不我待。

2)people, police, cattle等有生命的集体名词作主语。如:

The police are looking for the missing child. 警察正在寻找那个丢失的孩子。

3)goods, stairs, arms等以s结尾的名词作主语。如:

The goods were sold out. 商品都买完了。

4)由山脉、群岛、瀑布、运动会等s 结尾的专有名词作主语。如:

The Olympic Games are held once every four years. 奥运会每四年举办一次。

注意:A number of +复数名词与The number of +复数名词作主语区别:

A number of students are reading books in the classroom.

许多的学生在班里读书。

The number of students is about 150 in our class.

我班学生的数量是约150人。

  1. 谓语动词单、复数视情况而定

1)集体名词class, family, team, crowd等作主语。强调整体用单数,指个体成员用复数。如:

His family is a great one. 他的家庭是个大家庭。

His family are music lovers. 他家里人都喜欢音乐。

2)means, works, pains等词,根据主语表达的概念而定。如:

The steel works is near the station. 这家钢厂在车站附近。

Two new steel works are being built. 有两家钢厂正在建设中。

3)all, none, some, any等不定代词作主语,根据其指代的内容而定。如:

All are present. 所有人都在场。

All the food tastes good. 所有食物都好吃。

4)“half / most / enough / part / the rest / the last / lots / a lot / 分数、百分数 + of + 名词”作主语时,谓语动词要和 of 之后的名词单复数保持一致。如:

Two thirds of the students are girls in our class. 我们班三分之二的学生都是女生。

Two thirds of building was painted. 这栋楼三分之二刷过漆了。

② 就近一致原则

由or…, either …or…, neither…nor…, not only…but also…等连接的并列主语,谓语动词常和靠近的作主语的名词有单复数上保持一致。如:

Not only he but also I am invited. 不仅他而且我都收到了邀请。

Is not only he but also I invited? 不仅他,我也被邀请了吗?

Neither her gloves nor her hat goes with the dress. 她的手套和帽子都不配这件衣服。

Not only you but also she likes drawings. 不仅你而且她也喜欢绘画。

注意:在there be结构和倒装句中,谓语通常全部或部分放在主语前面,谓语的单复数依后面的主语而定。如:

Where there is dirt, there are flies. 那里有垃圾,那里就有苍蝇。

There are three books and a pen on the table. 桌子上有三本书和一支笔。

There is a pen and three books on the table. 桌子上有一支笔和三本书。

On my right are many trees; on my left is a wide river.

我的右边有很多树,我的左边有条宽宽的河。

③ 就远原则

with / along with / together with / including / but / except / like / among / as well as / no more than / besides / rather than +名词置于主语后,谓语动词一般仍和前面的名词在单复数上保持一致。如:

The teacher with a number of students is in the classroom.

教室里有老师,还有很多学生。

He as well as his children wants to go to China.

不仅他而且他的孩子们也想来中国。

Mary, along with her friends, was warmly welcomed by the audience.

玛丽和她的朋友都受到了观众的热烈欢迎。

强化练习

(    )1.I think no news _____ good news.He will be back soon.

A.are B.is C.was D.were

(    )2.The father with his two sons _______ to Beijing.

A.have gone B.has gone C.go D.going

(    )3.The police _____ searching the hill for the spies(间谍).

A.is B.being C.are D.was

(    )4.The number of people invited _______ fifty, but a number of them ______ absent for different reasons.

A.were; was B.was; was C.was; were D.were; were

(    )5.Neither he nor I _____ from France.Both of us _____ from China.

A.am;are B.is; are C.was; were D.was; are

(    )6.Every summer the Greens _____ fishing in their hometown.

A.goes B.go C.went D.have gone

(    )7.____your family watching TV at eight yesterday evening?

A.Are B.Is C.Were D.Was

(    )8.There _____anything new in today’s newspaper.

A.isn’t B.hadn’t C.haven’t D.aren’t

(    )9.Both communication skills and computer skills _____ important.

A.are    B.is C.was D.am

(    )10.Reading books _____ one wise(明智的).

A.made       B.make         C.makes           D.is making

欢迎报名张老师对口升学英语辅导课程,为升学助力。

河南省对口升学英语学习QQ群:1038856263

哔哩哔哩直播间欢迎您:

https://live.bilibili.com/21808904


0 条评论

发表评论